'the mass press was based on the commercialization of the participation in the public sphere on the part of broad strata designed predominantly to give the masses in general access to the public sphere. this expanded public sphere, however, lost its political character to the extend that the means of "psychological facilitation" could become an end in itself for a commercially fostered consumer attitude. in the case of the early penny press it could already be observed how it paid the maximization of its sales with the depoliticization of its content--by eliminating political news and political editorials on such more topics as intemperance and gambling'
'the journalistic principles of the illustrated newspaper had an honorable tradition. in relation to the expansion of the news-reading public, therefore, the press that submitted political issues to critical discussion in the long run lost its influence. instead, the culture consuming public whose inheritance derived from the public sphere in the world of letters more than from that in the political realm attained a remarkable dominance.'
(emergence of type of mass media.)
'admittedly, this consumption of culture was to a high degree detached from the literary vehicles. nonverbal communications or those that, if they had not been translated into picture and sound altogether, were facilitated by optical and acoustic support, replaced to a greater or lesser extend the classical forms of literary production. these trends can also be observed in the daily press which is still closest to them. by means of variegated type and layout and ample illustration reading is made easy at the same that its field of spontaneity in general is restricted by serving up the material as a ready-made convenience, patterned and predigested. editorial opinions recede behind information from press agencies and reports from correspondents; critical debate disappears behind the veil of internal decisions concerning the selection and presentation of the material. in addition the share of political or politically relevant news changes. public affairs, social problems, economic matters, education, and health--according to a categorization suggested by american authors, precisely the "delayed reward news"--are not only pushed into the background by "immediate reward news" (comics, corruption, accidents, disasters, sports, recreation, social events, and human interest) by, as the characteristic label already indicates, are also actually read less and more rarely. in the end the news generally assumes some sort of guise and is made to resemble a narrative from its format down to stylistic detail )the news stories); the rigorous distinction between fact and fiction is ever more frequently abandoned. news and reports and even editorial opinions are dressed up with all the accoutrements of entertainment literature, whereas on the other hand the belletrist contributions aim for the strictly "realistic" reduplication of reality "as it is" on the level of cliches and thus, in turn, erase the line between fictional and report.'